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Drive smarter decision-making with explainable machine learning



This article was contributed by Berk Birand, CEO of Fero Labs.

Is the hype around AI finally cooling?

That’s what some recent surveys would suggest. Most executives now say the technology is more hype than reality— and 65% report zero value from their AI and machine learning investments.

However, these statements often reflect a fundamental misunderstanding. Many executives don’t differentiate generic black box AI from related technologies such as explainable machine learning. As a result, they’re missing out on a crucial pathway to smarter and more efficient decision-making that can drive more enterprise value.

Black boxes, or software programs that spit out mysterious answers without revealing how they got there, are the algorithms that power the world’s top tech companies. You have no way to know how a black box comes up with its result. Occasionally, the results are amusing, as when Google’s image recognition software erroneously identifies a cat as guacamole, or when Netflix recommends a bad show. In those cases, the stakes are low. A mistake on Netflix’s part costs, at most, a few wasted minutes.

But for complex, high-stakes sectors like healthcare, criminal justice, and manufacturing, it’s a different story. If AI technology informs a steel engineer to add the wrong quantity of alloys, producing a metal with the wrong density, buildings could collapse.

In areas like healthcare, where a single decision literally makes the difference between life and death, professionals may be particularly reluctant to trust the recommendations of a mysterious black box algorithm. Or, even worse, they might adopt them, leading to potentially catastrophic results.

Explainable machine learning

Unlike black box software, any AI solution that can properly call itself “explainable” should reveal how various inputs affect the output. Take an autopilot software, for example — the algorithm controlling the steering needs to know how much the aircraft will tilt if a sensor detects northwest winds of 50 miles per hour, and the user must be able to understand how this information impacts the algorithm’s predictions. Without this ability, the software would fail to serve its intended purpose, and thus would result in negative value.

Furthermore, explainable software should provide some kind of measurement indicating its confidence in each prediction, allowing for safe and precise decision-making. In healthcare, for example, a doctor wouldn’t just be told to use a certain treatment. Rather, they’d be told the probability of the desired result, as well as the confidence level. In other words, is the software very confident in its prediction, or is the prediction more of a guess? Only with this kind of information can the doctor make informed and safe decisions.

How can you apply explainable machine learning to drive smarter decision-making in your company?

If you want to build a tool internally, know that it is difficult. Explainable, machine learning is complex and requires deep statistical knowledge to develop. One sector that’s done this well is pharmaceuticals, where companies often have scores of Ph.D.s doing in-house explainable data science and analysis.

If you want to buy software, you’ll need to do some due diligence. Look at real use cases that the vendor provides, not just taglines. Look at the background of the science/research team — are they proficient in explainable machine learning? What evidence are they showing off their technology?

Most importantly? Use your judgment. The great thing about explainable machine learning is that it can be, well, explained. If you don’t get it, it probably won’t drive value for your company.

Berk Birand is the CEO of Fero Labs, an industrial AI software company based in New York.

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Identity in the metaverse: Creating a global identity system



With the advent of the metaverse, the need for a global identity system has become apparent. There are many different ways to create an identity in the metaverse, but no single system is universally accepted. 

The challenge is usually two-fold: first, how to create an identity that is accepted by all the different platforms and services in the metaverse, and second, how to keep track of all the different identities a person may have.

There are many proposed solutions to these challenges, but no clear consensus has emerged. Some believe that a single, global identity system is the only way to ensure interoperability between different platforms and services. Others believe that multiple identities are necessary to allow people to maintain their privacy and security.

The debate is ongoing, but it is clear that the need for a global identity system is becoming more urgent as the metaverse continues to grow.


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In this article, we will explore the various options for creating a global identity system in the metaverse. We will discuss the pros and cons of each option, and try to identify the best solution for the future.

Option 1: A single global identity

The simplest solution to the problem of identity in the metaverse is to create a single, global identity system. This would be a centralized system that would be responsible for managing all identities in the metaverse. 

The advantages of this approach are obvious: It would be much easier to keep track of identities, and there would be no need to worry about different platforms and services accepting different identities. In addition, a centralized identity system would allow for better security and privacy controls, as well as the ability to track identity theft and fraud.

However, this approach also has several disadvantages. First, it would be very difficult to create a global identity system that is accepted by everyone. Also, a centralized system would be vulnerable to attack and could be used to track people’s movements and activities. Third, it would be difficult to protect the privacy of users in a centralized system.

Option 2: Multiple identities

Another solution to the problem of identity in the metaverse is to allow each person to have multiple identities. This would mean that each person could have one or more identities that they use for different purposes. 

One of the main advantages of this approach is that it would allow people to maintain their privacy and security. Each person could choose which identity to use for each situation, and they would not have to worry about their entire identity being exposed. In addition, this approach would be more resilient to attack, as it would be much harder to take down multiple identities than a single one.

The limitations of such an approach would be that it could be difficult to keep track of all the different identities, and there would be no guarantee that different platforms and services would accept all of them. In addition, multiple identities could lead to confusion and could make it more difficult for people to build trust with others.

Option 3: A decentralized identity system

A third solution to the problem of identity in the metaverse is to create a decentralized identity system. This would be an identity system that is not controlled by any one centralized authority but rather is distributed among many different nodes. 

This might seem like the ideal approach, since decentralization is a common theme in the metaverse. However, there are still some challenges that need to be overcome. For instance, it would need to be ensured that all the different nodes in the system are properly synchronized and that the system as a whole is secure. In addition, it might be difficult to get people to adopt such a system if they are used to the more traditional centralized approach.

One solution would be to get the nodes in the system to be run by different organizations. This would help to decentralize the system and make it more secure. Another advantage of this approach is that it would allow different organizations to offer their own identity services, which could be more tailored to their needs.

Another would be to incorporate an edge computing solution into the system. This would allow for more decentralized processing of data and could help to improve performance. It would also make the system more resilient to attack since there would be no centralized point of failure.

The best solution for the future of identity in the metaverse is likely to be a combination of these approaches. A centralized system might be necessary to provide a basic level of identity services, but it should be supplemented by a decentralized system that is more secure and resilient. Ultimately, the goal should be to create an identity system that is both easy to use and secure.

The ideal identity standards of the metaverse

Now that we have explored the various options for identity in the metaverse, we can start to identify the ideal standards that should be met by any future global identity system. 

It is no easy task to create a global identity system that meets all of the criteria, but it is important to strive for an ideal solution. After all, the metaverse is still in its early stages, and the decisions made now will have a lasting impact on its future. 

Current iterations of the metaverse have used very traditional approaches to identity, but it is time to start thinking outside the box. The ideal solution will be one that is secure, private, decentralized, and easy to use. It will be a solution that allows people to maintain their privacy while still being able to interact with others in the metaverse. 

Most importantly, it will be a solution that can be accepted and used by everyone. Only then can we hope to create a truly global identity system for the metaverse.

The bottom line on identity in the metaverse

The question of identity in the metaverse is a complex one, but it is an important issue that needs to be addressed. 

The challenges associated with creating an implementation that is secure, private and decentralized are significant, but they are not insurmountable. For one, it will be important to get buy-in from organizations that have a vested interest in the metaverse. These organizations can help to promote and support the adoption of identity standards. 

It is also important to keep in mind that the metaverse is still evolving, and the solution that is ideal today might not be ideal tomorrow. As such, it will be critical to have a flexible identity system that can adapt as the needs of the metaverse change. 

Ultimately, the goal should be to create an identity system that is both easy to use and secure. Only then can we hope to create a truly global identity system for the metaverse.

Daniel Saito is CEO and cofounder of StrongNode

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How to Eliminate Scheduling Inefficiencies in Your Business



What do salons, consultancies, and home service providers all have in common? This question may seem like the prime setup for a joke, but there’s no punchline to look forward…

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Why You Should Start a Business Only While You Have a Job



Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own.

Many people that I meet tell me that they dream of starting their own . I always ask them, “Then why don’t you?” They typically respond by saying that they have so many financial and personal responsibilities, that they can’t just quit their job to start a company, etc. Then I tell them my story …

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Related: How to Use Your Current Job to Start Your Next Business

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